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SummaryThere is no evidence that raspberry ketones cause weight loss in humans, and the rat studies that suggest they may work used massive doses. More research is needed.
12 Popular Weight Loss Pills and Supplements Reviewed
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There are many possible weight loss solutions out there.
Some options are more popular than others, including certain pills, drugs, and natural supplements. These claim to help you lose weight, or at least to make it easier to lose weight when you combine them with other methods.
They tend to work via one or more of these mechanisms:
- Reducing appetite, making you feel more full so that you eat fewer calories
- Reducing absorption of nutrients such as fat, making you take in fewer calories
- Increasing fat burning, making you burn more calories
It’s important to note that few of these treatments have any basis in science and some could have serious health consequences. You should always discuss any diet or supplement changes with a doctor or registered dietitian.
To separate the myths from facts, here are the 12 most popular weight loss pills and supplements, reviewed by science.
1. Garcinia cambogia extract
Garcinia cambogia became popular worldwide after being featured on “The Dr. Oz Show” in 2012.
It’s a small, green fruit shaped like a pumpkin. The fruit’s skin contains hydroxycitric acid, the active ingredient in garcinia cambogia extract, which is marketed as a diet pill.
How it works: Animal studies show that it can hinder a fat-producing enzyme in the body and increase serotonin levels, potentially helping to reduce cravings ( 1 , 2 ).
Effectiveness: In one meta-analysis, researchers explored four electronic research databases to investigate the effectiveness of herbal medicines, including garcinia cambogia.
In a total of 54 randomized controlled trials in healthy adults with overweight or obesity, the authors found no difference in weight or body fat percentage between the garcinia cambogia group and the placebo group ( 3 ).
A 2020 review that looked at eight trials on garcinia cambogia found that, on average, it caused weight loss of about 3 pounds (1.34 kg) ( 4 ).
Side effects: While it’s widely agreed that garcinia cambogia is safe to take in recommended amounts, studies within the last few years have pointed to some serious side effects.
A 2018 study documented four cases of women who experienced acute liver failure after taking weight loss supplements containing garcinia cambogia ( 5 ).
Additionally, hepatotoxicity, or liver impairment, and some episodes of mania have also been reported in conjunction with taking garcinia cambogia ( 6 , 7 ).
Even though garcinia cambogia may contribute to modest weight loss, the effects are quite small and may not be noticeable.
Hydroxycut has been around for more than a decade and is one of the most popular weight loss supplements in the world.
The brand makes several products, but the most common is simply called “Hydroxycut.”
How it works: It contains several ingredients claiming to help with weight loss, including caffeine and a few plant extracts such as green coffee extract, which we’ll talk more about later.
Effectiveness: A 2011 meta-analysis of five clinical trials found that supplementation with C. canephora robusta, or green coffee extract, one of the key ingredients in Hydroxycut, led to about a 5.5-pound (2.47-kg) weight loss compared to the placebo ( 8 ).
Side effects: If you are sensitive to caffeine, you may experience anxiety, jitteriness, tremors, nausea, diarrhea, and irritability ( 9 ).
Hydroxycut products were removed from shelves as a result of cardiovascular risks in 2004 and hepatotoxicity in 2009 ( 10 ).
Acute liver injury has also been connected with using Hydroxycut supplements ( 11 ).
There are few large-scale studies on this supplement and no data on its long-term effectiveness. More research is needed to determine effectiveness and safety concerns.
3. Green coffee bean extract
Green coffee beans are simply coffee beans that haven’t been roasted.
They contain two substances believed to help with weight loss: caffeine and chlorogenic acid.
How it works: Caffeine can increase fat burning, and chlorogenic acid can slow the breakdown of carbohydrates in the gut.
Effectiveness: Several human studies have shown that green coffee bean extract could help people lose weight ( 12 , 13 ).
A meta-analysis of all the current randomized control trials on green coffee bean extract’s effect on obesity found that the supplement has a significant impact on minimizing body mass index (14).
Other benefits: Green coffee bean extract may help lower blood sugar levels and reduce blood pressure. It is also high in antioxidants ( 15 , 16 , 17 , 18 ).
Side effects: It can cause the same side effects as caffeine. The chlorogenic acid it contains may also cause diarrhea, and some people may be allergic to green coffee beans ( 19 ).
Green coffee bean extract may cause modest weight loss, but keep in mind that many of the studies that have found this have been industry-sponsored.
Caffeine is the most commonly consumed psychoactive substance in the world ( 20 ).
It is found naturally in coffee, green tea, and dark chocolate and is added to many processed foods and beverages.
Because caffeine is thought to be a metabolism booster, companies commonly add it to commercial weight loss supplements.
How it works: One study discussed the effect of caffeine on regulating body weight by increasing energy expenditure — essentially meaning you burn more calories via increased fat breakdown as well as through a process of body heat production called thermogenesis ( 21 ).
Effectiveness: Some studies show that caffeine can cause modest weight loss in humans ( 22 , 23 ).
Side effects: In some people, high amounts of caffeine can cause anxiety, insomnia, jitteriness, irritability, nausea, diarrhea, and other symptoms. Caffeine is also addictive and can reduce the quality of your sleep (24).
There is no need to take a supplement or a pill containing caffeine. The best sources are quality coffee and green tea, which also have antioxidants and other health benefits ( 25 ).
Caffeine could help boost metabolism and enhance fat burning in the short term. However, a tolerance to the effects may develop quickly.
5. Orlistat (Alli)
Orlistat is a pharmaceutical drug sold over the counter under the name Alli and via prescription as Xenical.
How it works: This weight loss pill works by inhibiting the breakdown of fat in your gut, meaning that you take in fewer calories from fat.
Effectiveness: A 2003 meta-analysis of studies found that people taking orlistat for 12 months in combination with lifestyle changes saw a 2.9% greater weight reduction than the placebo group ( 26 ).
Other benefits: Orlistat has been shown to reduce blood pressure slightly and may reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes when used alongside lifestyle changes ( 27 , 28 ).
Side effects: This drug has many digestive side effects, including loose, oily stools; flatulence; and frequent bowel movements that are hard to control. It may also contribute to deficiency in fat-soluble vitamins such as vitamins A, D, E, and K (29).
Following a low fat diet while taking orlistat is often recommended to minimize side effects. Interestingly, a low carb diet (without medication) has been considered as effective as orlistat and a low fat diet combined.
Both diets were as effective for weight loss but showed no significant differences in blood sugar and blood lipid levels. However, orlistat combined with a low fat diet was more effective at lowering blood pressure ( 30 ).
Orlistat, also known as Alli or Xenical, can reduce the amount of fat you absorb from food and help you lose weight. It has many side effects, some of which are highly unpleasant.
6. Raspberry ketones
Raspberry ketone is a substance found in raspberries that is responsible for their distinct smell.
A synthetic version of raspberry ketones is sold as a weight loss supplement.
How it works: In isolated fat cells from mice, raspberry ketones increase the breakdown of fat and increase levels of a hormone called adiponectin, which is believed to be related to weight loss ( 32 ).
Effectiveness: There are very few studies on raspberry ketones in humans, though one 2013 study looked at raspberry ketones along with some other ingredients and found a potential 2% increase in weight loss over 8 weeks when compared with a placebo (31).
One mouse study using massive doses showed some delay in weight gain ( 32 ).
However, high doses of raspberry ketones were also associated with higher blood sugar levels and higher levels of ALT, a liver enzyme, indicating liver dysfunction.
It’s unknown whether these effects would translate to humans. More research is necessary to determine any benefits and risks.
Side effects: They may cause your burps to smell like raspberries.
There is no evidence that raspberry ketones cause weight loss in humans, and the rat studies that suggest they may work used massive doses. More research is needed.
Glucomannan is a type of fiber found in the roots of the elephant yam, which is also called konjac.
How it works: Glucomannan absorbs water and becomes gel-like. It “sits” in your gut and promotes a feeling of fullness, helping you eat fewer calories ( 33 ).
Effectiveness: One clinical trial showed that taking glucomannan for 60 days could lower body weight among participants with overweight, but only if they were consistently taking the supplement ( 34 ).
Other benefits: Glucomannan is a fiber that can feed the friendly bacteria in the intestine. It can also lower blood sugar, blood cholesterol, and triglycerides and works effectively against constipation ( 35 , 36 , 37 ).
Side effects: It can cause bloating, flatulence, and soft stools and can interfere with some oral medications if taken at the same time.
It is important to take glucomannan about half an hour before meals, with a glass of water.
Studies show that the fiber glucomannan, when combined with a healthy diet, can help people lose weight. It also leads to improvements in various health markers.
Meratrim is a relative newcomer on the diet pill market.
It’s a combination of two plant extracts — Sphaeranthus indicus and Garcinia mangostana — that may change the metabolism of fat cells.
How it works: It claims to make it harder for fat cells to multiply, decrease the amount of fat they pick up from the bloodstream, and help them burn stored fat.
Effectiveness: Very few studies about Meratrim exist. One study involved 60 people with obesity placed on a strict 2,000-calorie diet and increased physical activity, with either Meratrim or a placebo.
After 8 weeks, the Meratrim group had lost 11 pounds (5.2 kg) and 4.7 inches (11.9 cm) off their waistlines ( 38 ).
Another study suggested that Meratrim had long lasting effects on appetite suppression (39).
Side effects: No side effects have been reported.
One study showed that Meratrim caused weight loss and had a number of other health benefits. However, the study was industry-sponsored, and more research is needed.
9. Green tea extract
Green tea extract is a popular ingredient in many weight loss supplements. This is because numerous studies have shown that the main antioxidant it contains, EGCG, may aid fat burning.
How it works: Green tea extract is believed to hinder enzymes such as pancreatic lipase, which, when combined with reduced fat absorption, can be an effective way to treat obesity ( 40 ).
Effectiveness: Many human studies have shown that green tea extract, when paired with exercise, can increase fat burning and cause fat loss, especially in the belly area ( 41 , 42 , 43 , 44 ).
Side effects: Green tea extract is generally well tolerated. It does contain some caffeine and may cause symptoms in people who are sensitive to caffeine.
Green tea and green tea extract could increase fat burning slightly and may help you lose belly fat.
10. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)
CLA has been a popular fat loss supplement for years.
It is known as one of the “healthier” trans fats and is found naturally in some fatty animal-derived foods like cheese and butter.
How it works: CLA may reduce appetite, boost metabolism, and stimulate the breakdown of body fat ( 45 , 46 ).
Effectiveness: In a major review of 13 studies, researchers found that CLA caused weight loss of about 1.1 pounds (0.52 kg) compared with a placebo. This number increased to 2.3 pounds (1.05 kg) in people over age 44 ( 47 ).
According to another review from 2012, CLA may make you lose about 1.5 pounds (0.7 kg) compared with a placebo. The authors conclude by questioning the clinical relevance of CLA’s small effect on body weight ( 48 ).
Side effects: CLA can cause various digestive side effects and may have harmful effects over the long term, potentially contributing to fatty liver, insulin resistance, and increased inflammation.
CLA could be an effective weight loss supplement, but it may have harmful effects in the long term. The small amount of weight loss it may lead to is not worth the risk.
Forskolin is an extract from a plant in the mint family that is thought to be effective for weight loss.
How it works: It may raise levels of a compound inside cells called cAMP, which can stimulate fat burning ( 49 ).
Effectiveness: One study in 30 men with excess weight or obesity showed that forskolin reduced body fat and increased muscle mass while having no effect on body weight. Another study in 23 women with excess weight found no effects ( 50 , 51 ).
Side effects: There is minimal data on the safety of this supplement or the risk of side effects.
The two small studies on forskolin have shown conflicting results. It’s best to avoid this supplement until more research has been done.
12. Bitter orange/synephrine
A type of orange called bitter orange contains the compound synephrine.
Synephrine is related to ephedrine, which used to be a popular ingredient in various weight loss pill formulations ( 52 ).
However, the FDA has since banned ephedrine as a weight loss ingredient because of serious side effects ( 53 ).
How it works: Synephrine has similar mechanisms to ephedrine but is less potent. It could help reduce appetite and increase fat burning ( 54 ).
Effectiveness: Very few studies have been done on synephrine, but many studies have found that ephedrine can cause significant short-term weight loss ( 55 ).
Side effects: Like ephedrine, synephrine may have serious side effects related to the heart. It may also be addictive.
Synephrine is a fairly potent stimulant and is potentially effective for weight loss in the short term. However, the side effects can be serious, so it should be used only with extreme caution and with a doctor’s supervision.
Additionally, some prescription weight loss pills have been somewhat effective.
The most common ones are Contrave and Phentermine.
According to a 2014 review, even prescription weight loss pills don’t work as well as you might assume. On average, they may help you lose 3–9% of your body weight compared with a placebo ( 56 ).
Keep in mind that this is only when these pills are combined with a healthy weight loss diet. They are ineffective on their own and are not likely a helpful long-term solution to obesity. They also have many possible side effects.
Of the 12 weight loss pills mentioned, the ones backed by the strongest evidence are:
- weight loss: glucomannan, CLA, and orlistat (Alli)
- increased fat burning:caffeine and green tea extract
However, many health professionals advise against orlistat because of the unpleasant side effects and against CLA because of its harmful effects on metabolic health.
That leaves glucomannan, green tea extract, and caffeine. These supplements can be helpful, but the effects are modest at best. And you can find all three naturally in foods and drinks without having to resort to a supplement.
Ultimately, no supplement or pill works very well for weight loss. They may give your metabolism a bit of a nudge and help you lose a few pounds, but that’s where their effects likely end.
Determining a weight that’s healthy for you, focusing on mindful eating, using safe calorie deficits, and increasing your physical activity are still the best ways to lose weight, and these methods work better than all the diet pills combined.
Last medically reviewed on April 19, 2022
Best Supplements for Weight Loss, According to Dietitians
You’re still going to have to put in the work to lose weight, but these supplements will help you along.
Published on May 31, 2021 | 9:42 AM
FACT CHECKED BY
When it comes to weight loss, you know the drill. Eat healthy foods. Work out smart. Pray to the scale gods up above. But there’s an oft-overlooked booster to help you on your weight loss journey or jumpstart a weight loss plateau: supplements.
There’s a smattering of research-backed supplements that can help you slim down. Below, nutritionists and doctors weigh in on the best of the bunch. As always, consult with a trusted healthcare professional before adding a new supplement to your routine. Read on, and for more on how to eat healthy, don’t miss Simple Ways to Start Losing Weight Immediately, According to Science.
Good for your gut, and good for your waistline. “Probiotics, when referring to their supplement form, are living bacteria that provide countless health benefits when ingested. These bacteria are naturally occurring in the gut, but can be replenished through external means,” says Trista K. Best, MPH, RD, LDN at Balance One. “The gut bacteria play many roles in weight regulation in both weight loss and weight gain. One primary reason is the bacteria’s effect on appetite regulation. When the balance of good to bad gut bacteria is off, the short-chain fatty acid production in the gut is amped up, which triggers appetite hormone production. These hormones are typically those involved in increasing appetite and leading to weight gain.” Probiotics can help to reinforce the good-for-you bacteria to reign in the production of those hunger hormones.
For some of our favorite probiotics supplements for weight loss, check out our guide here.
Mary Wirtz, MS, RDN, CSSD, Nutritional Consultant at Mom Loves Best shares that beta-glucan is “another dietary supplement that has been well-researched in helping facilitate weight loss as it can keep you full longer, in addition to improving blood sugar control, lipids, and blood pressure.” she explains, citing this study. “Beta-glucan is a soluble fiber readily available from oat and barley grains,” she continues, noting that it is naturally occurring in many other foods. Beyond oats and barley, some of these include yeast, mushrooms, and algae.
Whey protein powder
Already slipping this into your smoothie? The scale is singing your praises. “One supplement that can help facilitate weight loss is whey protein powder as regular consumption can help to retain lean muscle tissue, which translates into increased body strength and increased metabolic rate,” says Wirtz, sharing this study which found that a whey-protein supplement increases fat loss and spares lean muscle in obese individuals. “This particular research study showed that taking whey protein powder in addition to a calorie-controlled diet can help facilitate body fat loss while preserving muscle tissue,” she says, adding that for those interested in adding a protein powder supplement to their diet, she recommends finding one that is economical, tastes good, and does not have added sugars and unnecessary ingredients.
This golden superfood is well worth befriending in supplement form. “The plant turmeric can be taken in through supplement form. It can be found in either capsule or powder form and sometimes goes by the name curcumin,” says Best, citing this review on the effects of curcumin on weight loss among patients with metabolic syndrome and related disorders. “Curcumin is the name of the active ingredient in turmeric products that give it its benefits. Turmeric can make an excellent addition to an existing weight loss regimen. This is due primarily to turmeric’s anti-inflammatory capabilities,” she adds. 6254a4d1642c605c54bf1cab17d50f1e
A cuppa java or tea may do your skinny jeans good. “Caffeine may help with weight loss and help halt weight gain progression over time,” says Wirtz, pointing to this consumer fact sheet on dietary supplements for weight loss from the National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements. “Caffeine is a stimulant that can make you more alert, increase energy levels, burn calories, and increase fat breakdown,” she continues, referencing this study on the association between weight loss and maintenance in relation to habitual caffeine intake and green tea supplementation (more on green tea later).
Green tea, specifically, has also been shown to offer promising results on the weight maintenance front. “Green tea has been traditionally cultivated and consumed in China and other east Asian countries for centuries. However, in recent years it has worked its way into the spotlight for it’s weight-loss and weight-management properties,” says registered dietitian Grace Clark-Hibbs, MDA, RDN. “According to a recent research review, one of the most effective ways green tea can prevent weight gain is by essentially restricting certain gut enzymes from doing their jobs. This, in turn, lowers the rate of absorption of fats and sugars and reduces how many calories the body processes. The specific nutrients suspected of carrying out this process are called polyphenols and can also be found in other foods including berries, nuts, and red onions,” she continues, pointing to this review on the weight-loss effects of oxidized tea polyphenols.
“Fish oil is the most common omega-3 fat fatty acid (FA) supplement; however, you can also get it from foods like salmon (and other fatty fish), oysters, flaxseeds, and walnuts. The health benefits of omega-3 FA are vast and include weight management and obesity prevention according to recent research,” shares Clark-Hibbs. “Appetite suppression is one of the properties that may help with weight loss. Research suggests that people who incorporate more omega-3 FA into their diet or take a fish oil supplement stay full for longer and are therefore less likely to snack or graze later. Another property of interest is the effect omega-3 FA have on fat metabolism. Studies show that omega-3 FA help regulate fat metabolism by promoting fat breakdown and limiting fat creation/storage. There is also evidence to show it promotes overall health by decreasing LDL cholesterol and triglycerides (‘bad’) and increasing HDL cholesterol (‘good’).”
Loading up on omega-3s in your diet can be a key move to promote good health. Check out the best omega-3 foods to fight inflammation and support heart health.